Saturday, 23 June 2012

Twenty questions for the creation of Indo-Islamic Identity, Pride and Power

Questions to Muslims
1)      Can we help in getting back to the roots of our identities-for example Sikhism as a pietic Hindu-Muslim syncretic faith not a martial faith?
2)      Aim for a westernized secular Islam-the dream of Jinnah
3)      Varieties of Islam in the Indian sub-continent move towards a federal unified structure under an assertive Indo-islamic Social identity with a sufi umbrella.
4)      Asserting peaceful, egalitarian Islam of the Deccan, Sindh, Kashmir over entire sub continent.
5)      Affirmative Action for Muslims, like free training for IIT as opposed to Reservation.
6)      Destroy Myth Creation
7)      Restore Indo-Islamic Power, Pride and Identity destroyed by British.
8)      Pakistanis are culturally Indian.

Questions to Hindus

1)      Promote even erstwhile enemies like Taliban to support India.
2)      Allow a person to support Aurangzeb and yet be Nationalist Indian Muslim
3)      What is your reaction when Maulanas of Deoband aggressively question Musharraf?
4)      Encourage ideas like Mughals are not foreigners, even the Taliban is Indian.
5)      Support Regional Indian, not religious identity, say Bengali, Deccan and Kasmiri identity.
6)      Destroy Separate Electorates which live today as Reservation, encourage Afirmative Action
7)      “Pure Indo Islamic, Bhakti-Sufi Identity”, which integrates Hindutva of Advani and Paak Islam of Jinah.
8)      Modern Extention of great Indo-Islamic Empires

Finally Qs To Indians
I will not say wise things like Defeat the enemy within, but more practically
1.      Chodo Kal ki Baaten
Karen aane wale kal ki baaten
2.      Do not compromise with enemy, but compromise with your opponent
3.Defeat your opponent with love
4.      Make your rival your best friend
Your best friend can be your rival

Friday, 22 June 2012

This team of Contemporary Indian Muslim Players could Defeat Bangladesh and maybe even Pakistan…

It would be nice for some people to know that although we can have a team with the following players having a common religion, we think of it as a ridiculous concept, which it actually is...there is nothing ever possible like a team of Indian muslims.. altho we could have it if we wanted to..i would like to remind some of my friends who will consider this post ridiculous and somewhat embarrasing..that there ARE actually some teams in the world based on religion, so what i am talking of is relevant..its just that we are above such with that goes..
Zaheer Khan(Captian)
Muhammad Kaif
Irfan Pathan
Yusuf pathan
Shami Ahmed
Wasim Jaffar
Iqbal Abdullah
Syed Quadri
Shadaab Jakaati
Syed Muhammad
Shahbaaz Nadeem
Twelth Man-Ali Murtaza

+ following reserves
Syed Qadri
Abu Nechim
Kamraan Khan
Samad Fallaah
Faiz Fazal
Abrar Kazi
Asad Pathan
+young Players like Armaan Jaffar and Sarfaraz Khan in Bombay Local Cricket league and other under nineteen players

Wednesday, 20 June 2012

Behavioural economics and consumer issues- (Reference-Peter Winsley)

Behavioural economics and consumer issues- (Reference-Peter Winsley)

 Anomalies and cognitive biases relevant to consumer issues  Evolution has left us with a host of psychological characteristics that are inconsistent with rational modern world assumptions.
Unstable preferences
 Preferences are unstable – what is observed at one point in time changes with time. People value gains and losses differently. Gains and losses display diminishing sensitivity, so the difference between $10 and $20 seems bigger than the difference between $1000 and $1010. People go to more trouble to save a small sum (e.g. $5) over a small purchase (e.g. $20) than saving a larger sum on a larger purchase, such as several hundred dollars on a house purchase (Camerer et al 2004 p 79).
 People assign value to gains and losses against reference points rather than final assets. So, someone may buy a share at $5, see it drop to $3, and stay there for long enough for the $3 to become the new reference point. They then feel a profit has been made at $4 because the reference point is now $3.
Thinking often anchors on an irrelevant reference point such as the spin of a wheel, a random number, unrelated fact, or a credit card minimum repayment rate lower than what is optimal for the consumer. Salespeople may offer consumers an expensive product which they do not expect to sell, since this creates an anchor against which consumers judge a lower cost product to be reasonably priced.
 Importance of framing Framing can alter perceptions of gain or loss. A “discount” is seen as a gain and a “surcharge” is seen as a loss even when they are financially neutral. For example when tested, the credit card industry has insisted that the difference between paying in cash or through a credit card be framed as a cash discount not a credit card surcharge. Were the wording the other way round the economic behaviours and outcomes would possibly be different. Framing influences how risk and uncertainty are perceived and managed. People will more often decline a medical operation framed as having a 10% failure rate than one with a 90% success rate, even though the risk is equivalent. Consumers will perceive differently foods advertised as “95% fat free” compared to “5% fat”.
Loss aversion, endowment effect and status quo bias
Individuals are loss averse (Kahneman et al 1991; Kahneman & Tversky 1984). This may explain why consumers are more responsive to price increases than price cuts. They place higher valuation on what they have, compared to what they may aspire to obtain (“a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush”). Experimentally, people reject 50:50 bets to lose $100 or gain $105.
People have a bias in favour of the status quo and current endowments (Thaler 1980). People use heuristic short-cuts, that is, simple rules of thumb enabling decisions to be made without going through complex, optimality-based analysis. “Hassles” matter, and people avoid them through short cuts. Some of these short cuts may be efficient, though non-optimal, however others may be maladaptive in the modern world.
People respond to cues or primes, many of which trigger “rule of thumb” heuristics. It is easier to draw on and apply familiar associations than to imagine counter-factuals. An availability heuristic can be employed to estimate frequency or probability by the ease with which familiar associations are brought to mind. The availability heuristic creates a bias favouring what is more memorable, vivid or emotionally charged. The “availability cascade” sees a collective belief become more plausible through its repetition in public discourse: “repeat something long enough and it will become true”. These heuristics are in turn related to the recognition heuristic, where if people have heard of something it must be for a reason, and so they favour this “something”.
Information and choice overload
People are vulnerable to information overload, and too many options reduce the likelihood that people will make a choice (see Schwartz, 2004). Iyengar et al (2004) show that employees’ participation in retirement savings plans drops as the number of fund options proposed by the employer increases. The number of options offered will influence the one chosen.
People tend to overestimate their abilities and this has consequences for individuals and whole economies. Associated with this, projection bias or false consensus bias refers to people over-estimating the likelihood of people acting in the same way as an individual. Bubbles arise partly because cognitive biases such as excessive self-confidence at the individual level aggregate into herding behaviour and major distortions. Over-confidence by investors, lenders and borrowers was one of many factors that caused the recent global financial crisis.
The confirmation bias means we privilege information that supports a pre-ordained theory. This bias can reinforce individual overconfidence. It is associated with hindsight bias where people exaggerate the prior predictability of an event after it has happened. Money illusion
Money illusion includes confusion over nominal versus real values, the illusion of free goods when costs are hidden and shifted to others, People may not notice a real wage decrease (e.g. due to inflation) so long as nominal wages don’t fall.
Consideration of sunk costs
People’s reluctance to accept they have made past bad decisions means they overvalue sunk costs, leading to “throwing good money after bad” problems.
Misunderstanding of probabilities and of risk
People overweight small probabilities, for example when they buy raffle tickets Assessment of probabilities may be distorted by false or irrelevant cues or associations. The “base rate fallacy” describes people focusing on particular data only rather than on all data bearing on a problem. An example is the roulette wheel in a casino. Some tables have displays which show the recent numbers the ball has landed on in the wheel. Some punters use this as a guide to predict what number or colour will come up next, often using the so called ‘trend’ as an indicator when of course the result of each spin of the wheel is independent of the previous spin.
People often prefer a small probability of winning a large prize over the expected value of that prospect. There is a tendency to make risk-averse choices if the expected outcome is positive, but to make risk-seeking choices to avoid negative outcomes (Tversky & Kahneman 1981).
Different mental accounts
The orthodox economic assumption is money is fungible, that is “a dollar is a dollar” regardless of whether it is held in cash, in a superannuation fund or in a property value. People have different mental accounts (Thaler, 1990; Thaler 1985),

Social norms and herding effects
Humans evolved as a social species where individuals depend on others for guidance. Social norms are created and reinforced by observations or cues signalling how society expects individuals to behave. When a transparent donation box is “primed” with $5 notes rather than coins people’s average donations will tend to follow this $5 average since a norm has been established. Negative norms shape individual behaviour: “when you live among wolves you have to be a wolf yourself.” If everyone else is littering, you might too. Negative social norms and peer pressure are difficult for individuals to escape because “to be a stranger among your own is to be alone among strangers,” and therefore excluded from wider social support. So, in deciding for example on a default provision a principle may be to align a default to a positive social norm. For example, organ donation may be a widely shared and positive social norm, and therefore this could become a default provision.
 Authority bias
People defer to authority figures, including politicians and popular celebrities. Authority figures influence social norms for good or bad: “fish go rotten from the head”. Related to this, government itself is seen as “authority”. Therefore, that something is lawful and regulated can imply that government has mandated it, thereby triggering authority bias and dissuading consumers from rigorous scrutiny of product offerings. Scarcity bias
The scarcity bias or heuristic (Brannon & Brock 2001) suggests people consider rare products to be of high value or quality.
Salience and vividness
The brain privileges first hand information over abstract symbols. People are over-responsive to rare but vivid and memorable events such as crimes, terrorism, plane crashes, and are under-responsive to less obvious, low salient events such as poor diet that erodes health over time. The cost of taking a taxi is obvious while the through-life cost of owning and running a car less so. It is common food industry practice to reduce package sizes rather than increase prices because a price rise is more obvious and more likely to reduce demand.
Lotto is popular because of the high salience of the jackpot compared to the low vividness of the minute probability of winning. Businesses may sell products/services by reducing the vividness of costs (e.g. “50 cents a day” rather than $182.50 a year, or “for the price of a cup of coffee a day”). They can also amplify vividness for marketing reasons. High pressure sales tactics exploit visceral factors and the vividness of urgency. So, “cooling off periods” are often required to allow reconsideration of purchases and to counter behavioural tendencies to make early decisions based on sellers contriving a sense of urgency. These cooling off periods may be ineffective because of such factors as the way default provisions are prescribed and procrastination.
Inferential cues
De Steno et al (2004) argue that persuasion is more successful when messages are framed with emotional overtones matching the consumer’s emotional state.
Social cues of intimacy, trust or reliability, and inferential techniques can be exploited in lawful but misleading ways. An example of an inferential technique is to associate cigarette smoking with sport, outdoors life, holidays or personal freedoms. Tobacco companies use brand names such as ‘Freedom’, ‘Holiday’ and ‘Horizon’ to trigger positive associations and distract attention from health risks.
 Present bias and discounted utility
In evolutionary times, ever-present danger and uncertainty over even short-term prospects made human psychology present-centred. It now means that people are likely to be hyperbolic discounters, in that they over-value the present.
People often procrastinate and if given a relatively longer time to complete a task will take longer to do so
Practical applications of behavioural psychology to consumer issues  Producers respond to consumer “needs” and also shape or create those needs through behavioural psychology. Retailers may reduce the perceived cost of a product by e.g. labelling it $2.99 rather than $3. They encourage purchase of excessive quantities by labelling a well stocked product as “limit of ten”. This tactic exploits several cognitive biases – the scarcity bias, a sense of urgency (“buy now before they are sold out”), and the anchoring on an upper limit as a target to aspire to (buying ten not one).

Tuesday, 12 June 2012

Innovation in Entrepreneurship by Dr. Munish Yoginder Alagh, Devesh Baid, Dr. Narendra Mohan Mishra, P. Sathyapriya

            We have studied the work of Social Scientists in the development of field of entrepreneurship, which has actually happened in recent years in business school community. Social sciences have contributed a lot both to the theoretical understanding as well as practical enterprise of entrepreneurship. Insights which the social sciences have generated can act as do’s and don’ts for the future entrepreneurs. Further new ideas about the entrepreneurship theory and practice can be provided by social sciences by looking at innovative business behaviour in different cultures, societies and times and also by looking at it from different angles and much wider range of action than what is being done.

            The word entrepreneur comes from the French word ‘entreprendre’ which means ‘to do something’. Hoselitz in 1951 wrote that the word entrepreneurship was used first time in the Middle Ages to mean a person who is active and who gets things done. Essay on the Nature of Commerce in General by circa in 1730 covered economic theory of entrepreneurship. The term ‘entrepreneur’ was coined by Say in seventeenth century and it was taken in a larger perspective later. Schumpeter in 1954 wrote that John Stuart Mill in the mid nineteenth century used the term entrepreneur as a general currency among English economist.

            The industries were flourishing during 1970’s and 1980’s and the growth rate of US during this period was multifold. This is because of the emergence of new needs and it resulted in growth of entrepreneurs in this era. The economic liberalization in 1991 developed the spirit of entrepreneurship in India. The concept flourished as the young people were willing to take risk and do business than take up a secured job.

            Entrepreneurs in those days started small business as owners and invested capital and took the risk of earning returns. This situation was like an owner-manager. Later many contributors emerged and the concept of entrepreneurship had a different perspective with Joseph Schumpeter in 1911. These contributors added some inputs ot the existing theory. Joseph Schumpeter is the most important contributor in developing an economic theory centered on the entrepreneur. He has put his thoughts in the book, “The Theory of Economic Dynamics” which he revised in 1926 with the contradictions to the basic principles of Say. He[1] “postulated that, entrepreneurship is a dynamic disequilibrium brought on by the resources from the places of availability to the needed area” in his first edition of the book. Thus it involves mobilization of resources form the places of availability to the places of necessity.

            In the second edition of the book, Schumpeter included the broader perspective of entrepreneurship. According to him entrepreneurship includes innovation of a new element in production, marketing, finance in the way of cost reduction and human resource.
Schumpeter[2] has identified “five types of entrepreneurial behaviour which includes:
  1. Introduction of a new goods – that with which consumers are not yet familiar
  2. Introduction of  a new method of production that is one not yet tested by experience in the branch of manufacture concerned
  3. The opening of a new market, that is a market into which the particular branch of manufacture of the country in question has not previously entered,
  4. The conquest of a new source of supply of raw materials or half-manufactured goods, again irrespective of whether this source already exists or whether it has first to be created
  5. The carrying out of the new organization of any industry, like the creation of a monopoly position or the breaking up of a monopoly position”

            Schumpeter is of the opinion that as the economy moves forward, and as the population increases, innovations emerge to meet the requirements of population. He says that innovation is “an adaptive response or change in the economic system, which after a while reached a new equilibrium; and it was this process, from one equilibrium to another, that economists should study.” Thus what was entrepreneurship in earlier days changed and these changes portrayed the changes in the economy. He says that, “What is rarely, if ever mentioned, is that Schumpeter’s theory of entrepreneurship is part of an attempt to construct a whole new type of economic theory, which was to complement”[3]

            Schumpeter is quoted by Swedberg as reacting to these ideas of Walras that there will be a disturbance in the economy itself that will change the environment and these changes need not come from outside the system. Swedberg[4] explains about Schumpeter that, “His general argument was that all truly important changes in the economy are set off by the entrepreneur, and that these changes then slowly work themselves through the economic system, in the form of a business cycle. Schumpeter also suggested that his idea of internally generated change, as opposed to change induced from the outside, was not only applicable to economic phenomena, but to all social phenomena.”

            ‘Schumpeter’s theory of the entrepreneur’ is found in the second edition of “The theory of Economic Development” (1926) and more precisely in the translated version (1934) of the second German edition in the second chapter. In this chapter it is explained that entrepreneurship is meant to produce some goods or services by utilizing the resources and these resources should be combined in the best possible way to yield profitable output. The output may be same or different depending on the combinations of resources. There is a need for ‘new combinations of productive means’. Swedberg[5] has pointed out that, “Entrepreneurship can be defined as the making of a ‘new combination’ of already existing materials and forces; that entrepreneurship consists of making innovations, as opposed to inventions; and that no one is an entrepreneur forever, only when he or she is actually doing the innovative activity.”

            Max Weber has given some brilliant ideas on entrepreneurship based on his theory of charisma. His early definition states (Weber [1898] 1990:57) “Entrepreneurship means the taking over and organizing of some part of an economy, in which people’s needs are satisfied through exchange, for the sake of making a profit and at one’s own economic risk.”          

            Two important contributions were made by Weber in the field of entrepreneurship in his study. First he stated that a change in the attitude towards entrepreneurship came because of the reformation in the western world from attitude of hostility and alienation to that of acceptance and active promotion. And second Weber stated that a positive attitude by society towards money making and work facilitated the more general change in attitude towards the entrepreneur. Youngsters were determined to take risk and earn more return than earn an average monthly compensation.

            Another interesting theory of innovation was suggested by Emile Durkheim where he talks that new institutions and new values appear in situations where the intensity of social interaction reaches such a height that it practically boils over. According to him examples of such moments in the history include the revival of learning and culture, French revolution, early stage of the industrial revolution in England, the time around the turn of the century in United States and the more recent history of silicon valley.

            A Norwegian Fredrik Barth developed an anthropological theory of entrepreneurship in 1960 by studying a central African village. According to Barth entrepreneurship is connecting two different spheres in society where something is cheap in one sphere and expensive in another sphere. In his case study from central Africa, Barth uses an example of an economy where in one sphere cash is used, in the other not. In the former people trade in a few products such as onions and tomato; while in the second spheres millet production and work to build houses can be exchanged for beer and not for cash. Local population saw these two spheres as separate from one another and this was also the way it had always been. One day, however, an Arab merchant appeared and connected the two spheres by offering bear in exchange for helping in cultivating tomatoes which he then sold for the cash on the market at a good profit for himself. Barth analysis of economic spheres illustrates not only that entrepreneurship is about spotting new opportunities but also as Robert K Merton has suggested, that entrepreneurship may involve a challenge to some of the basic values that exist in a community. 

            Innovation was introduced by Peter Drucker in 1980’s and he has suggested that in order for there to be ‘systematic innovation’, the leadership in the organisation should be able to update the changes and make the organisation to realize what it want to be and what it is? The changes may be in production, technology, supply chain, environment change, demographic change of the customers, changes in the market, etc. Innovations in the modern business firm were studied by Rosabeth Moss Kanter. “Kanter starts out by arguing that the typical kind of innovation, which is produced in the modern business firm, goes through several stages:
            1) An innovative idea has to be produced;
            2) Support for the idea has to be generated;
            3) The idea has to be turned into a finished product; and       
            4) The finished product has to be diffused to the consumer.
These four stages may happen haphazardly; and one then relies on luck, intuition and the like for innovations to emerge”. Thus jobs can be experimented with new ideas and tasks in order to offer innovative products to the customers. (Swedberg, 2000, Section III, page 162).

            Kanter introduced different types of entrepreneurs like, ‘intrapreneur’ or ‘corporate entrepreneur’. These terms emerged in order to increase the involvement of the entrepreneurs in organisation. This involvement makes them emerge with creative and innovative ideas which set aside the non-innovative entrepreneurs. Changing to innovation takes time and efforts. It is noted by Kenneth Arrow that the decision making structure tends to differ between firms, depending on their size. Thus smaller the size more flexible is the organisation to innovation and bigger the size the possibilities to adapt to innovation becomes difficult. This is because a small change in large organisations will create major changes in the existing system which may disturb the whole environment.

            Arrow suggests that small firms will be more innovative and large firms will buy their innovations. The small firms may have constraints in developing these researches further and these activities can be taken care by the large firms. Thus every large firm should promote large number of small innovative firms and help them to evolve new ideas and concepts. These ideas should be multiplied by the large firms. Thus there should be a good mixture of small and large firms. Small firms inorder to compete with the larger ones, become unique in its existence with its innovative skills.

            Innovation demands good networking relationship. “The focus is on the new kind of relationship between computer system firms and their main suppliers, which has developed after a severe crisis hit the region in the mid 1980’s. Instead of arm’s length relationships, industrial networks have emerged which are characterized by deep, long-lasting and equal relationships. This way, the computer system firms have become free to specialize and to compete more effectively, and the suppliers free to develop into more sophisticated and less labor intensive outfits. Working so closely together has also facilitated the emergence of many new products, the result of ‘complementary innovation’, in the author’s terminology. According to Saxenian, this type of collaboration has made it possible for Silicon Valley to once again become a world leader in an industry, which is extremely volatile.”

            Apart from economics, other social science disciplines have also conducted studies on entrepreneurship since last five decades. Business history, sociology, psychology, economic history and economic anthropology have conducted studies on entrepreneurship. But no comprehensive study exists till now which covers all of these.  Even except for economics there are no comprehensive reviews in individual social sciences which cover all the work on entrepreneurship. However there is a huge and emerging urge for entrepreneurship which results in its new forms. This inturn urges the concept of innovation in entrepreneurship inorder to make them competitive.

  1. Richard Swedberg (1911), “Entrepreneurship: The Social Science View”, Oxford University Press: Newyork.
  2. Peter F. Drucker (1985), “Innovation and Entrepreneurship – Practice and Principles”, Heinemann: London.

[1] Peter F. Drucker (1985), “Innovation and Entrepreneurship – Practice and Principles”, Heinemann:  
    London, p. 24.
[2] Richard Swedberg (1911), “Entrepreneurship: The Social Science View”, Oxford University Press: New  
  York, p.2.
[3] Richard Swedberg (1911), “Entrepreneurship: The Social Science View”, Oxford University Press: New  
  York, p. 12
[4] Ibid.
[5] Ibid.

Lean Production,LeanThinking and Lean Solutions-A Report by Munish Alagh

Below I summarise three major works of James Womack, I start with a summary of the first few pages of the book-“The Machine that changed the world-How lean production revolutionalised the global car wars”.James.P. Womack, Daniel T Jones, Daniel Roos and Donna Sammons Carpenter, Simon and Schuster UK Ltd. 1990). I then summarise the Preface of the book  “Lean Solutions”James P.Womack and Daniel T Jones,Simon and Schuster UK Ltd, 2005 and main result of the book  Lean Thinking:Banish Waste and Create Wealth in your Corporation. James P.Womack and Daniel T.Jones New York:Simon and Schuster, 1996,Second Edition, 2003.
This is done in order to to show how Lean Thinking as a concept has evolved in the last twenty years.

Summary I-“ Foreword 2007 Why Toyota Won:A Tale of Two Business Systems(Womack, 1990 page vii, viii)
- In 1990 Toyota was half the size of General Motors and two-thirds the size of Ford. In 2007, Toyota has easily passed Ford and is surging past GM to become the largest and most consistently successful industrial enterprise in the world. When we read the story of Toyota, GM and Ford we read the story of not merely three giant firms in one giant industry, but two fundamentally different business systems, two ways of thinking about how humans work together to create value, mass-production was pioneered by General-Motors in the 1920’s as it passed Ford to become the world’s largest industrial enterprise.The system was then widely copied and used by enterprises in practically every industry all over the globe-including Ford and General Electric-for nearly seventy-five years.The other business system-lean production-was pioneered by Toyota in the twenty years after World War II and is now rapidly diffusing to every corner of the world.Let us consider mass versus lean production and show why lean is superior. There are five elements of lean production-designing product, co-ordinating supply chain, dealing with customer, producing the product, from order to delivery and managing the combined enterprise.
 Summary II-Before you begin this book.(Womack 1990 page 1, 2)
Let us start our story with 1984, the auto industries of North America and Europe were relying on the techniques of the mass-production system and these techniques were simply not competitive with a new set of ideas pioneered by the Japanese companies.The Western companies did not seem to be able to learn from their Japanese competitors, instead they were focusing their energies on erecting trade barriers and other competitive impediments.At this time a team of western authors conducted focused research of Japanese techniques which they named lean production compared with the older western mass production techniques.
Summary III of Sections ofChapter 1-The Industry of Industries in Transition(Womack 1990, pages 9-13)-After World War II, Eiji Toyoda and Taiichi Ohno at the Toyota Motor Company in Japan pioneered the concept of lean production.The rise of Japan to its current economic preeminence quickly followed, as other Japanese companies and industries copied this remarkable system.
Lean production (a term coined by researcher John Krafcik in the International Motor Vehicles Program at MIT) is ‘lean’ because it uses less of everything compared to mass production-half the human effort in the factory, half the manufacturing space, half the investment in tools, half the engineering hours to develop a new product in half the time. Also, it requires keeping far less than half the needed inventory on site, results in many fewer defects, and produces a greater and ever growing variety of products.
Perhaps the most striking difference between mass production and lean production lies in their ultimate objectives. Mass producers set a limited goal for themselves-‘good enough,’which translates into an acceptable number of defects, a maximum acceptable level of inventories, a narrow range of standardized products.To do better, they argue, would cost too much or exceed inherent human capabilities.
Lean producers, on the other hand, set their sights explicitly on perfection:continually declining costs, zero defects, zero inventories, and endless product variety.Of course, no lean producer has ever reached this promised land-and perhaps none ever will, but the endless quest for perfection continues to generate surprising twists.
(“Lean Solutions”
Summary IV -(“Lean Solutions” Preface -From Lean Production to Lean Solutions,Womack, 2005, pages 1-8)

(As we saw in the previous section) Toyota’s product development, supplier management, customer support, and manufacturing processes were collectively the “machine” that was changing the world. This conclusion naturally raised the question of how companies in any industry in any country could also achieve process brilliance.

For this five simple steps were proposed-(Womack, 2003)
Provide the value actually desired by customers.
Identify the value stream for each product
Line up the remaining steps in a continuous flow.
Let the customer pull value from the firm.
Finally, once value, the value stream, flow, and pull are established, start over from the beginning in an endless search for perfection, the happy situation of perfect value provided with zero waste.

Consumers Dilemna in the 21’st century
Consumption should be easier and more satisfying due to better, cheaper products.Instead it requires growing time and hassle to get all of our goods and services to work properly and work together. Stated another way, today’s consumers are often drowning in a sea of brilliant objects.And this seems very strange when we stop to consider that satisfying consumption-not just making brilliant products-is the whole point of lean production.

Today’s situation of more choices and more knowledge for the consumer, gained at the expense of more responsibility and more decision and management time, can be summed up very simply:
1)There are more and more consumption decisions for consumers to make.
2)The evolution of the production process, claims more of the consumer’s(unpaid) time and energy while blurring the boundary between consumption and production.
3)Consumers will have less useful time and energy in the day in the years ahead.
Rethinking Value in the 21’st century
We need a better way for consumers to obtain the goods and services they now want. This improved process is called-lean consumption.But this must be accompanied by a companion process, this is called lean provision, which comprises all of the steps required to deliver the desired value from producer to customer, often running through a number of organizations.

Thursday, 7 June 2012

Jinnah: A look at how much he loved India in his early years and how he fought for India’s Secular Principles Part-I:The Beginning 1876-1910-Reference: Jinnah of Pakistan, by Stanley Wolpert, Oxford University Press.

In Lincoln Inn :the hallowed hall of British Jurisprudence is an oil painting, hung since July 1965 on the entrance of the Great Hall and Library in London. The anonymous artist captured his upbright, unbending spirit, as well as his impeccable taste in clothes, yet Jinnah’s face is almost as enigmatic and spare as the shining brass plate beneath. His eyes, opened wide, are piercing; his lips, tightly closed, formidable. One would guess that he was a man of few words, never easily thwarted or defeated.  “M.A. Jinnah, Founder and First Governor-General of Pakistan” stares down at the students, barristers, and benchers rushing in and out of Lincoln’s Inn, nothing more is revealed of Jinnah’s history, but his birth and death date, but what should interest Indians is, that there was much more to Jinnah, including the fact that even uptill the last decade of British Raj, Jinnah remained, by and large committed to India’s unity.

Even so it must be said that Jinnah during the last decade of his life tenaciously and single mindedly fought for Pakistan.

A part of Jinnah’s personality was due to his background, Jinnah belonged to a minority community within Islam, itself a religious minority in India, the Khojas of  South Asia remained doubly conscious of their separateness and cultural difference, helping perhaps to account for the “aloofness” so often noted as a characteristic quality of Jinnah. Khojas, like other mercantile communities, however, traveled extensively, were quick to assimilate new ideas, and adjusted with relative ease to strange venvironments. They developed linguistic skills and sharp intelligence, often acquiring considerable wealth.

As an eleven year old Jinnah visited Bombay and would never forget it, although he went back to Karachi after little more than six months it was hardly out of boredom with his new environment.

As a seventeen year old Jinnah left for England, and although had some initial adjustment pangs, soon adjusted to life in London and began to like it before long.
His perfect manners and attire always assured him entry into any of England’s stately homes, clubs and palces. Jinnah became a model of fashion the world over, rivaled among his South Asian contemporaries only by Motilal Nehru.

Dadbhai Naoroji fought and narrowly won in 1892  a seat in Britian’s Parliament. During the campaign, he was characterized as a “black man” during the campaign. From that day, Jinnah was an uncompromising enemy of all bars of colour and racial prejudice. Jinnah was thrilled to hear Dadabhais maiden speech extolling the virtue of Free Speech in the House of Commons. As Jinnah noted “there he was, an Indian, who would exercise that right and demand justice for his countrymen.”

In 1893 when Jinnah enrolled in the Lincln’s Inn, John Morley was elected as a bencher and argued for placing “truth” first among any choice of “principles”. Jinnah quoted Morley to student audiences later in life, and he personally tried to adhere to the liberal ideas early imbibed from Lincoln’s great bencher.

M.P. Alfred Webb, whom Jinnah had heard from Westminister’s  Gallery, was elected to preside over the Madras Congress in 1894. “I hate tyranny and oppression wherever practiced, more especially if practiced by my own Government, for then I am in a measure responsible,” Webb said to his Indian audience that December. And until the “Irish question” was resolved, President Webb insisted, India like the rest of the British empire, would suffer, for parliament “is paralysed with…the affairs of under five millions of people, and ministries rise and fall on the question of Ireland rather than great Imperial interests.” It was an important lesson for Jinnah, one he subconsciously assimilated during those early lonely years in London, of how a small minority and its insistent demands could “paralyse” a huge empire. He learned to appreciate all the weaknesses as well of strengths of British character.

Jinnah, let go an opportunity to take u the Stage as a profession, after a letter from his father,urging him not to be a traitor to the family.He was however a born actor.Many a political opponent however made the mistake of believing, however, that Jinnah was “only acting” when he was most serious.

In 1896, Jinnah returned to the city he chose as his new permanent home, till partition i.e. Bombay.

Jinnah admired Badruddin Tyabji a secular liberal nationalist, who argued in his presidential address to the Madras Congress: “I, for one, am utterly at loss to understand why Mussulmans should not work shoulder to shoulder with their fellow-countrymen, of other races and creeds, for the common benefit of all..this is the principle on which we, in the Bombay presidency, have always acted.” Jinnah’s other closest friends and admiored elders in Bombay  were Parsis, Hindus and Christians, none of whom took their respective religions as seriously as their faith in British Law and Indian nationalism.

Jinnah’s universe at that time was law, though his singular success as an advocate was not unrelated to his acting talent.” He was what God made him,” a fellow barrister of Bombay’s high court put it, “ a great pleader. He had a sixth sense: he could see around corners. That is where his talents lay…he was a very clear thinker…but he drove his points home-points chosen with exquisite selection-slow delivery, word by word.” Another contemporary noted,”When he stood up in Court, slowly looking towards t6he judge, placing his monocle in his eye-with trhe sense of timing you would expect from an actor-he would become omnipotent. Yes, that is the word-omnipotent. Joachim Alva said he “cast a spell on the court room…head erect, unruffled by the worst circumstances. He has been our boldest advocate.” Jinnah’s most famous legal apptrentice, M.C. Chagla, the first Indian Muslim appointed chief justice of Bombay’s high court, reminisced that his leader’s “presentation of a case” was nothing less than “ a piece of art.”
In politics, Jinnah’s heroes remained Dadabhai Naoroji and another brilliant leader of Bombay’s Parsi community, Sir Pherozeshah Mehta. Sir Pherozeshah was more the Bombay model for Jinnah’s early career than Dadabhai. In 1890 he labeled the
”supposed rivalry” between Hindus and Muslijms nothing more than “a coinvenient decoy to distract attention and defer the day of reform.” Young Jinnah felt much the same way.

The 1904 Congress was Jinnah’s first meeting with Gopal Krishna Gokhale, whose wisdom, fairness and moderation he came to admire so that he soon stated his “fond ambition” in politics was to become “the Muslim Gokale.”

Jinnah left the 1906 Annual Session of the Congress in Calcutta inspired with the mission of advocating the cause of Hindu-Muslim unity, perceiving as few of his contemporaries did how indispensable such unity was to the new goal of Swaraj (“self-government) that Congress had adopted. He was politician enough to realize that his only hope of succeeding his liberal mentors and friends as leader of vthe Congress was by virtue of his seclar constitutional national appeal, not through his double-minority status. In one short decade after returning from London he had virtually emerged as heir apparent to the Bombay triumvirate.

Jinnah was to rise in the Allahabad Congress of 1910 to second a resolution that “strongly deprecates the expansion or application of the principle of Separate Communal Electorates to Municipalities, District Boards, or other Local Bodies.”
Paradoxically, Jinnah spoke at the end of his first year as the Calcutta council’s Muslim member from Bombay.

Saturday, 2 June 2012

Random thoughts-food, music, movies, travel,books, sports....

Getting food whether an ice gola or a chicken tiikka had at the venue is maximum fun, see a movie in hall..match at stadium..vanilla ice cream dipped in chocolate it...i can cook eggs, roast chicken, tea...picking up food fresh from the at a home of a friend..better than any restaurant, whether at sumangal society Mrs. Shah or Mr jafri at juhapura, or faiz's sisters cooking at jama masjid or grandmothers (punjabi-fathers mom, gujarati, mothers mom) food...if u have to eat out, pizza, bataka poha, dabeli, daal vada, bhutta, juice, cold cofee, on not get not eat bufet..if u go on vacation spend less time communicating more time hills, sea..l;ong walks....pick up food from supermarket and cook it yrself...if in france..speak french...fresh fruit..huge cherries, fresh mangos..remember thai houses in old bangkok with open kitchen..thai curry with rice followed by one scoop of coffee ice cream cone and iced coke...all u can eat korean barbeque in toronto i had sixteen friend marvelled..he did not have beef so he had 12 bowls... one of my best meals was next to sea in singapore choicest sea air restauranting in 1980.. iremember having three huge sundaes in singapore while waiting for family at restaurant as they shopped..tandoori chicken for rs 50 at lajpat nagar...i remember climbing elgin peak with my father 3500 metres...all flushed on return....walking 20 km in university areas in canada and US....two packs of strawberry and two in one ice cream between lunch and tea..unlimited burrah kababs in pandara park since 1988...rickshaw driver trying to steal my pizza from this time pizza was 13 rs..uncle getting veg chowmein from jnu..jnu best book shop..jawahar book depot..all good academic books..jnu best entrance papers..academic bookstores in US and Canada..designated for university..lots of fun..heavy swimming and cycling..followed with chinese food..swagat, sankalp, woodland, dasaprakash....filter cofeee..chocolate cake with ice cream..stufed parathas with white butter chawal rajma, alu puri, chole rajmah, rice and gujarati daal, home cooked south indian food, filter cofee, tamil brahmin girls...kanada girls..aditi rao hydari in london, paris, newyork, pakistani media obsessed with india..wasim akram alizafar and adnan saami good guys..imran khan?..but still keeps coming to india...goan food in bandra..8 bacardi breezers..six small rums with with seven up....Mphil monographs in economics..very neat..macroeconomic dynamics...dificult to do...excel regressions..neat ppts...not wordy..wodehouse, christie and ludlum..comfort reading...visits to friends places...gurgaon at close relatives....multiplex PVR...jogging..cycling..exercise..summer sessions in US universities...butterscotch candies in italy, lindt milk york public libraries..infact public libraries in general inUS and Canada..amitabh films..naasir hussain films..impossible catches in park cricket..cold wintry evenings and fireplaces..gardens...driving fail than success..jet executive class..rajdhani, shataabdi...zeenat aman, payal rohatgi..bronze missed in one or two golds, comp, laptop, skype, android...meditating..boundless energy like dhoni...conserving energy..crossword and, airtel, tamils..bengalis, pieces with ice cream..lizards, cockroaches, rats..raksha bandhan..diwali in delhi,...salmans eid film..favourite song list..facebook tours.........................